• Erwin Saraswati Universitas Brawijaya



ABSTRACTPurpose — This research aims to support Sustainable Development Goals specifically to reduce carbon emission. Design/methodology/approach — Systematical literature review was used as a research method, evaluated and analyzed as much as 17 articles.Findings — The result indicate that mitigation is more preferable than adaptation in case of carbon emission accounting definition. Stakeholders were involved to applied carbon disclosure which support the stakeholder theory, while measurement of carbon emission found that carbon-footprint approach is more widely used by organizations.Practical Implications — Environmental field become one of the SDG’s (Sustainable Development Goals) objectiveas it is related to the climate change caused by carbon emission that significantly increase from 1990’s.Originality/value — This research delivers concept, definition, practice, and measurement of gas emission based on previous research result (by several researchers/research paper) in various countries.Keywords — Climate change, carbon accounting, adaptationandmitigation, carbon-footprint approach.

Author Biography

Erwin Saraswati, Universitas Brawijaya

Accounting Department


Ascui, F & Lovell, H (2011), ‘As frames collide: Making sense of carbon accounting’, Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, Vol. 24, No. 8, pp. 978-999.

Blanco, C, Caro, F & Corbett CJ (2017), ‘An Inside Perspective on Carbon Disclosure’, Business Horizons, Vol. 60 Issue 5, pp. 635-646.

Bowen, F., Wittneben, B., & Bowen, F. (2011). Carbon accounting Negotiating accuracy , consistency and certainty across organisational fields. Auditing and Accountability

Brohe, Arnaud. (2017). The Handbook of Carbon Accounting. A Greenleaf Publishing Book.

Choi, B, Lee, D and Psaros, J (2013), ‘An analysis of Australian company carbon emission disclosures’, Pacific Accounting Review, Vol. 25 No.1, pp. 58-79.

Caroll, AB & Buchholtz, AK (1999) ‘Business and society: Ethics and stakeholder management’, 4th Edition, South Western Publishing, Cincinnati: OH, United States.

Deegan, Craig. (2004). Financial Accounting Theory. Australia: McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Limited

Deegan, C (2014), ‘Financial Accounting Theory’, 4th edition, McGraw Hill, Sydney.

El Serafy, S (1997), ‘Green accounting and economic policy’, Ecological Economics, Vol. 21 No. 3, pp. 217-229.

Eleftheriadis, Iordanis dan Evgenia Anagnostopoulou (2017). Measuring the level of corporate commitment regarding climate change strategies Measuring the level of corporate commitment regarding climate change strategies. Auditing and Accountability Journal.

Fink.A. (2010). Conducting Research Literature Review. From the internet to paper, third edition. Sage Publication.,Inc. Thousand Oaks.

Freeman, RE (1984), ‘Strategic management: A stakeholder approach’. Boston: Pitman.

Freeman, RE et al (2010) ‘Stakeholder Theory: The State of Art’, Cambridge University Press, New York, United States.

Gupta, A & Maranas, CD (2003), ‘Market-based pollution abatement strategies: Risk management using emission option contracts’, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, Vol. 42 No. 4, pp. 802-810.

Gibassier, D., Schaltegger, S., Gibassier, D., & Schaltegger, S. (2015). converging emergent approaches Carbon management accounting and reporting in practice A case study on converging emergent approaches. Handbook.

Hespenheide, E.,Pavlovsky. dan K. Mc.Elroy. (2010). Accounting for SPer

Carustainability Performance. Financial Executive, 26 (2), 52-58.

Haigh, M & Shapiro, M (2012), ‘Carbon reporting: does it matter?’, Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, Vol. 25 No. 1, pp. 105-125.

Hrasky, S (2012), ‘Carbon footprints and legitimation strategies: Symbolism or action?’, Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, Vol. 25 No. 1, pp. 174-198.

Hurteau, MD, Koch, GW & Hungate, BA (2008), ‘Carbon protection and fire risk reduction: toward a full accounting of forest carbon offsets’, Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, Vol. 6 No. 9, pp. 493-498.

Jamaludin, NF, Muis, Z and Hashim, H (2019), ‘An integrated carbon footprint accounting and sustainability index for palm oil mills’, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 225, pp. 496-509.

Kumarasiri, J & Jubb, C (2016), ‘Carbon emission risks and management accounting: Australian evidence’, Accounting Research Journal, Vol. 29 No. 2, pp. 137-153.

KPMG, (2008). Accounting for arbon. The Impact of Carbon Trading on Financial Statement. for_Carbon.pdf. diakses 4 Mei 2019.

Liddle, B (2018), ‘Consumption-based accounting and the trade-carbon emissions nexus’, Energy Economics, Vol. 69, pp. 71-78.

Lovell, H & MacKenzie, D (2011), ‘Accounting for carbon: the role of accounting professional organisations in governing climate change’, Antipode, Vol. 43 No. 3, pp. 704-730.

Maalouf, A & El-Fadel, M (2019), ‘Towards improving emissions accounting methods in waste management: A proposed framework’, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 206, pp. 197-210.

Marshall, R. and Brown, D. (2003), ‘Corporate environmental reporting: what's in a metric?’, Business Strategy and the Environment, Vol. 12, pp. 87â€106.

Melo, T (2012), ‘Determinants of corporate social performance: the influence of organizational culture, management tenure and financial performance’, Social Responsibility Journal, Vol. 8 No. 1, pp. 33-47.

Oruc, I & Sarikaya, M (2011) ‘Normative stakeholder theory in relation to ethics of care’, Social Responsibility Journal, Vol. 7 No. 3, pp. 381-392.

Pesqueux, Y & Damak-Ayadi, S (2005) ‘Stakeholder theory in perspective’, Corporate Governance, Vol. 5 No. 2, pp. 5-21.

Rankin, M, Windsor, C & Wahyuni, D (2011), ‘An investigation of voluntary corporate greenhouse gas emissions reporting in a market governance system: Australian evidence’, Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, Vo. 24 No. 8, pp. 1037-1070.

Suchman, M (1995), ‘Managing legitimacy: strategic and institutional approaches’, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 20 No. 3, pp. 571â€610.

Schmidt, M., & Schmidt, M. (2011). Carbon accounting and carbon footprint – more than just diced results ?

Stechemesser, Kristin dan Edeltraud Guenther (2012). Carbon Accounting: a systematic literature review. Journal of cleaner Production. 36, pp. 17-38.

Tranfield, D.,Denver D. dan Smart P. (2003). Towards of Methodology for Developing Evidence-informed management knowledge by means of systematic review. Br. J. Manage. 14(3), 137-144.

Zvezdov, D & Schaltegger, S (2015), ‘Decision Support Through Carbon Management Accounting—A Framework-Based Literature Review’, Corporate Carbon and Climate Accounting, Springer, Cham, pp. 27-44.




How to Cite

Saraswati, E. (2020). CARBON ACCOUNTING, DISCLOSURE AND MEASUREEMENT: A Systematic Literature Review. The International Journal of Accounting and Business Society, 28(2), 17–44.