Gender in Management: A Sociological Perspective
AbstractThispaper starts with an overview of the literature on gender differences in managerialÂ bahaviour.Â MuchÂ of the researchÂ onÂ management ignores or denies any difference betweenÂ genders.Â OnÂ theÂ other hand,Â researchÂ onÂ management style and genderÂ stereotypesÂ demonstratesÂ thatÂ thereÂ areÂ realÂ differencesÂ inÂ culturally approvedÂ communicationÂ andÂ interpersonalÂ influenceÂ methodsÂ usedÂ byÂ menÂ and womenÂ (Palmer,Â 1993;Â Willis, 1990).Â EmpiricalÂ findingsÂ fromÂ aÂ studyÂ onÂ women small business owners is used to explain androgyny. We review the evidence for the existence of a â€™glass ceilingâ€™ causing discrimination against women in management. We then suggest a theoretical framework of the management process whichÂ can be used to analyse the various ways that gender stereotypes impact on the management processes used within management.WhenÂ weÂ talkÂ aboutÂ genderÂ inÂ management,Â fewÂ peopleÂ wouldÂ sayÂ that women have made great strides in every walk of life.Â Since theÂ 1970s women have succeeded in combining careers withÂ families and are moving into male-dominated professions such as law, industry and commerce, but are still not well represented in the more senior positions (Grimwood & Popplestone,Â 1993). In order to explain this phenomenon we will be discussing the sociological constuction of women and men asÂ genders,Â â€˜womenâ€™Â andÂ â€˜menâ€™Â andÂ â€˜masculinityâ€™Â areÂ sociallyÂ andÂ culturally produced and vary with the society and the social context (Symons,Â 1992). For many years,Â menÂ wereÂ ableÂ toÂ holdÂ powerÂ atÂ allÂ levelsÂ becauseÂ theyÂ wereÂ freeÂ of childbearingÂ andÂ childÂ rearingÂ responsibilitiesÂ andÂ soÂ availableÂ toÂ participateÂ in social and political life.
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